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Overview of Graphene

wallpapers News 2021-08-12
Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic-scale, hexagonal carbon allotrope, in which each vertex has an atom. It is the basic structural unit of other allotropes (including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes). It can also be considered an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the final case of the family of planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Graphene has many properties. In proportion to its thickness, it is about 100 times stronger than the strongest steel. It can conduct heat and electricity very efficiently and is almost transparent. Graphene also shows a large nonlinear diamagnetism, even larger than graphite, and can be suspended by neodymium iron boron magnets. Researchers have determined the bipolar transistor effect, the ballistic transport of charges, and a large number of sub-oscillations in the material.
For decades, scientists have been conducting theoretical research on graphene. For centuries, through the use of pencils and other similar applications of graphite, it is likely to be produced in small amounts unknowingly. Graphene was first observed in an electron microscope in 1962, but it was only studied when it was supported on a metal surface. These materials were later rediscovered, separated and characterized by Andrei Heim and Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester in 2004. The existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure and properties provide information for research. Facts have proved that high-quality graphite is unexpectedly easy to separate, making more research possible.
The chemical and physical properties of graphene
The theoretical specific surface area of graphene is 2630 m2/g. This is much larger than carbon black reported so far (usually less than 900 m2/g) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), ranging from ≈100 to 1000 m2/g, similar to activated carbon.
Graphene is the only form of carbon (or solid material) in which, due to its 2D structure, each atom can undergo chemical reactions from both sides. The atoms at the edges of graphene sheets have special chemical reactivity. The ratio of edge atoms of graphene is the highest among all allotropes. Layer defects will increase their chemical reactivity. The initial temperature for the reaction of the single-layer graphene plane with oxygen is lower than 260 °C (530 K). Graphene burns at very low temperatures (for example, 350 °C (620 K)). Graphene is usually modified with oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. However, the oxygen functional groups and nitrogen functional groups used to determine the structure of graphene require good structure control.
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