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The "omnipotent" graphene

wallpapers News 2021-04-30
With the gradual breakthrough of mass production and large-size problems, the pace of industrial application of graphene is accelerating. Based on existing research results, the first commercial applications may be mobile devices, aerospace, and new energy battery field.
 
Basic research
Graphene has a special significance for the basic research of physics. It enables some quantum effects that can only be demonstrated theoretically before can be verified through experiments. In two-dimensional graphene, the mass of electrons seems to be nonexistent. This property makes graphene a rare condensed matter that can be used to study relativistic quantum mechanics-because massless particles must move at the speed of light Therefore, it must be described by relativistic quantum mechanics, which provides theoretical physicists with a new research direction: some experiments that originally needed to be carried out in giant particle accelerators can be carried out with graphene in small laboratories.
Zero energy gap semiconductors are mainly single-layer graphene, and this electronic structure will seriously affect the role of gas molecules on its surface. Compared with bulk graphite, the function of single-layer graphene to enhance the surface reaction activity is shown by the results of graphene hydrogenation and oxidation reactions, indicating that the electronic structure of graphene can modulate the surface activity.In addition, the electronic structure of graphene can be correspondingly changed by the induction of gas molecule adsorption, which not only changes the concentration of carriers but also can be doped with different graphenes.
 
Sensor
Graphene can be made into a chemical sensor. This process is mainly accomplished by the surface adsorption properties of graphene. According to the research of some scholars, the sensitivity of graphene chemical detectors can be compared with the limit of single-molecule detection. Graphene's unique two-dimensional structure makes it very sensitive to the surrounding environment. Graphene is an ideal material for electrochemical biosensors. Sensors made of graphene have good sensitivity for detecting dopamine and glucose in medicine.
 
Transistor
Graphene can be used to make transistors. Due to the high stability of the graphene structure, such transistors can still work stably at the scale of a single atom. In contrast, the current silicon-based transistors will lose their stability on the scale of about 10 nanometers; the ultra-fast reaction speed of electrons in graphene to the external field makes the transistors made of it can reach a Very high operating frequency. For example, IBM announced in February 2010 that the operating frequency of graphene transistors has been increased to 100 GHz, which exceeds that of silicon transistors of the same size.
 
Flexible display
At the Consumer Electronics Show, the bendable screen has attracted much attention and has become the development trend of mobile device displays in the future. The future market of the flexible display is broad, and the prospect of graphene as a basic material is also promising. South Korean researchers have produced for the first time a flexible transparent display composed of multilayer graphene and a glass fiber polyester sheet substrate. Researchers from South Korea's Samsung and Sungkyunkwan University have fabricated a piece of pure graphene the size of a TV on a 63 cm wide flexible transparent glass fiber polyester board. They said that this is by far the largest "bulk" graphene block. Subsequently, they used the graphene block to create a flexible touch screen. The researchers said that in theory, people can roll up their smartphones and pin them behind their ears like a pencil.
 
New energy battery
New energy batteries are also an important area of ​​graphene's earliest commercial use. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States has successfully developed flexible photovoltaic panels with graphene nano-coatings on the surface, which can greatly reduce the cost of manufacturing transparent and deformable solar cells. Such batteries may be used in night-vision goggles, cameras, and other small digital Applications in the device. In addition, the successful research and development of graphene super batteries have also solved the problems of insufficient capacity and long charging time of new energy vehicle batteries, greatly accelerating the development of the new energy battery industry. This series of research results paved the way for the application of graphene in the new energy battery industry.
 
Desalination
Graphene filters are used more than other desalination technologies. After the graphene oxide film in the water environment is in close contact with water, a channel with a width of about 0.9 nanometers can be formed, and ions or molecules smaller than this size can pass through quickly. The size of the capillary channels in the graphene film is further compressed by mechanical means, the pore size is controlled, and the salt in the seawater can be filtered efficiently.
 
Hydrogen storage materials
Graphene has the advantages of a lightweight, high chemical stability, and a high specific surface area, making it the best candidate for hydrogen storage materials.
 
Aerospace
Due to the characteristics of high conductivity, high strength, ultra-light, and thin, the application advantages of graphene in the aerospace and military industry are also extremely prominent. In 2014, NASA in the United States developed a graphene sensor used in the aerospace field, which can detect trace elements in the high-altitude atmosphere of the earth and structural defects on spacecraft. Graphene will also play a more important role in potential applications such as ultralight aircraft materials.
 
Photosensitive element
The new type of photosensitive element using graphene as the material of the photosensitive element is expected to have a special structure to increase the photosensitive ability by thousands of times compared to the existing CMOS or CCD, and the energy consumption is only 10% of the original. It can be used in the field of monitors and satellite imaging and can be used in cameras, smartphones, etc.
 
Composite material
Graphene-based composite materials are an important research direction in the field of graphene applications. They have shown excellent performance in the fields of energy storage, liquid crystal devices, electronic devices, biological materials, sensing materials, and catalyst carriers, and have broad application prospects. . At present, the research of graphene composites mainly focuses on graphene polymer composites and graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites. With the deepening of graphene research, the application of graphene reinforcements in bulk metal-based composites People is paying more and more attention.Multifunctional polymer composite materials and high-strength porous ceramic materials made of graphene have enhanced many special properties of composite materials.
 
Biological
Graphene is used to accelerate the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and it is also used to make biosensors for epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide. At the same time, graphene can be used as a nerve interface electrode without changing or destroying properties such as signal strength or scar tissue formation. Due to its flexibility, biocompatibility, and conductivity, graphene electrodes are much more stable in vivo than tungsten or silicon electrodes. Graphene oxide is very effective in inhibiting the growth of E. coli without harming human cells.

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