Since 2022, Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflicts have intensified, and global energy prices have risen sharply, with international natural gas prices hitting historic highs. As the most important transitional energy source in the transition from fossil energy to non-fossil energy, the share of natural gas in primary energy has increased from 14.6% in 1965 to 24.7% in 2020. The global gas price indices showed a unilateral downward trend from 2018, bottomed out in 2020, and remained low for a long time. However, since July 2020, the global gas prices have gradually fluctuated upward, and the impact of geopolitical events made the Dutch TTF gas price even hit record highs repeatedly.
An analyst of a securities company believes that the core catalyst of this round of global gas market lies in the lack of investment in upstream oil and gas resources caused by long-term low prices. Since 2020, although the epidemic has led to a decline in demand, the decline in supply has been faster, resulting in a large inventory consumption. In 2021, demand will recover faster than supply (the supply-side is less sensitive to prices, which will be reflected in investment).
As the world's two largest gas TiN powder are also expected to change significantly.
I. Titanium nitride coating (TiN)
TiN coating is a universal PVD coating that improves tool hardness and oxidation temperature. The coating can be used for high-speed steel cutting tools or forming tools to obtain good machining results. TiN coating is pretty economical, it is used to extend the service life of general tools and molds. Its performance is particularly outstanding when it is used to cut copper, low carbon steel, and other soft metals. Coating TiN on the surface of milling cutter can effectively improve the surface hardness of milling cutter, reduce the chemical affinity of milling cutter, prevent adhesion damage in the process of machining, and improve the wear resistance of the milling cutter.
2. Titanium nitrogen carbide coating (TiCN)
The carbon added to the TiCN coating improves tool hardness and surface lubricity, making it an ideal coating for tools. Due to the introduction of carbon element, the surface lubricity of the coating is improved and the friction coefficient is reduced. At the same time, the internal stress of the coating is reduced, which is of great significance to improve the production efficiency and surface quality of the workpiece. TiCN coating has lower friction coefficient and higher hardness than TiN coating. The milling cutter coated with titanium nitride carbide is more suitable for milling stainless steel, titanium alloy, nickel alloy and other hard materials. It has stronger wear resistance and high temperature stability, and can significantly improve the tool life.
3. Titanium aluminum nitride coating (AlTiN)
The alumina layer formed in the AlTiN coating can effectively improve the high temperature machining life of the tool, and the stable oxide layer is formed on the interface between the tool front and chip during cutting, which has good heat insulation performance. AlTiN coatings provide higher surface hardness than TiAlN coatings based on the ratio of aluminum to titanium in the coating, making it a viable alternative coating for high speed machining.
4. Aluminum chromium nitride coating (AlCrN)
AlCrN coating exhibits good red hardness and high temperature stability under high temperature conditions, and has good thermal corrosion performance. When machining low hardness materials or high viscosity materials, the cutting performance is better than AlTiN coated tools. Good adhesion makes it a coating when treating nodules. With this almost invisible coating, milling cutter performance will be greatly improved.
5. CVD diamond coating
Different from single-crystal diamond cutter and PCD composite cutter, CVD diamond coated cutter is a CVD diamond coated cutter which is deposited on the surface of carbide cutter by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. In the CVD diamond coating process, the tool surface is pure diamond without any additives, which avoids the application limitations caused by the presence of additive metals in PCD composite films. And the whole deposition process is carried out in atmosphere, there is no special requirement for tool geometry, which can be in any shape of carbide tool surface coating, to meet the needs of complex contour processing.
After experimenting and validation of various cutting tool materials, the service life of CVD diamond coated tools is 8-10 times that of carbide, and its cutting speed is 2-3 times higher than that of cemented carbide cutting tools. It has a good consistency and a low friction factor.
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Researchers at the Centre for Translational Atomic Materials at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia have developed a new graphene film that absorbs more than 90% of sunlight while eliminating most of the infrared thermal emission losses, a highly efficient A solar-heated metamaterial capable of rapidly heating to 83 degrees Celsius (181 degrees Fahrenheit) in an open environment with minimal heat loss. Proposed applications for the film include thermal energy harvesting and storage, solar thermal power generation, and seawater desalination.
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